- Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. While the fibers used are usually natural in origin, a wide variety of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, may be incorporated into paper as a way of imparting desirable physical properties.
- The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. In America, archaeological evidence indicates that paper was invented by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. Called amatl, it was in widespread use among Mesoamerican cultures until the Spanish conquest.
- Paper spread slowly outside of China; other East Asian cultures, even after seeing paper, could not figure out how to make it themselves. Instruction in the manufacturing process was required, and the Chinese were reluctant to share their secrets. The paper was thin and translucent, not like modern western paper, and thus only written on one side.
- Papermaking typically does begin with trees as the raw material, although many non-woody plants can be used. Plants used for papermaking include cotton, wheat straw, sugar cane waste, flax, bamboo, linen rags, and hemp.
- Cotton is often used in high-quality papers, such as for professional printing and resume applications; in addition it can be blended with wood to make mid-range paper products. Cotton is used to make United States currency, which is 75% cotton and 25% linen, according to the Treasury Department.
- Mechanical pulping can be done in several ways, but all are based on the same principle--finely grinding or chopping the wood to separate the cellulose fibers from everything else. Sometimes this is done by grinding alone; other times steam and chemicals aid in the process.
- Chemical pulping uses chemicals, heat, and pressure to dissolve the lignin in the wood, freeing the cellulose fibers. In the "kraft" process, the wood and chemicals are cooked in a digester to remove the sugars, about 90-95% of the lignin, and anything else you don't want in the final product. The waste from the digester is known as "black liquor," and it's often burned at the paper mill as an energy source. Kraft mills account for about 75-80% of all pulp production in the U.S.
- An operating paper machine typically has 30-100 conventional dryers. There are perhaps as many as 1,000 of these paper machine operating at speeds over 1500 to 1800 mpm, where rimming condensate reduces the rate of drying.
- India is also becoming an important player in global trade. During the 1994-2003 period, Indian exports grew on average by 12.8% annually. This compares With a GDP growth rate averaging 6.2% in the last 10 years, many economists have argued that India’s potential rate of GDP growth is in the 6-7% range. We expect India to maintain this potential rate of GDP growth in the medium term with some slowdown expected in the next two years due primarily to a global slowdown.
- Paper pulp exports from Latin America from forests converted into plantations and from the harvesting and conversion of tropical and subtropical forests are expected to grow 70 percent between 2000 and 2010. Global production in the pulp, paper and publishing sector is expected to increase by 77% from 1995 to 2020.
| General Information |
- History of Paper
- Paper Online
- Environmental Concerns of Paper
- Paper-The everyday wonder.
Production and Processing
- Paper Production Process
- Rice Paper Production
- Paper Production from Hemp woody core
- Paper Production Process at a Glance
- Paper Manufacturing Process
- Paper Production
- Sustainable Paper Production
- Production of Toilet Paper
- Processing of Paper in India
- Davy Pulp and Paper Company
- West Coast Papers Mills Ltd
- Kochi Prefectural Paper Technology Center
- Metso Paper
- M L M India Ltd
- Experts in 'paper processing'
- Hill Consultants
- MacGregor Paper Consulting
- P C Paper Consultants
- Moore & Associates
Products and Applications
- Handmade Paper Bags
- Handmade Paper Products
- Handmade paper stationery Products
- Silk Paper Products
- Batik Paper Products
- Uses of Paper in Western Art
- Manufacturing Tissue Paper Products Using
a High Contents of Recovered Office Papers
- Uses Of Paper
- Uses of Waterproof Paper
Project and Plant
Technology and Patent
- Strengthening Handmade Paper industry in India
- Handmade Paper Gift Card
- Paper Project
- Prairie Paper Project
- Paper Plate Spider
- Handmade Paper Production
- Streamline Paper Processing Plant
- Fujitsu one step closer to Digital Paper Production
- Multiport Dryers Could Revolutionize the Paper Marketing Industry
- Paper Technology Supports Complex group Coordination
- Paper Technology
- Cigarette Paper Technology to Reduce Cigarette Ignition Propensity
- Detecting Presence of Metal Strand in paper
- Apparatus for Folding and Cutting Paper
|Manufacturers And Suppliers |
- Century papers Manufacturers
- China A4 Paper Manufacturers
- Handmade Papers Suppliers
- Paper Suppliers
- Paper Manufacturers
- Exporters of Paper
- Manufacturers of Photo paper
- Selling Leads of Paper
- Wall Paper Suppliers
- Handmade Paper Buyers
- Importers of Paper
- Kraft Paper buyers
- Trade Leads of Paper
- D'andrea Agrimport Equipments Suppliers
- Formax Equipments Manufacturers
- JMC Engineers
- Lyish Engineering Ltd
- Paper Processing Machinery Suppliers
- High Speed Core Winder Suppliers
- Paper Production Machines Exporters
- Paper Processing Equipments Suppliers
- R-V Industries, Inc.
- BURSTER MODEL 63611 Suppliers
- Varaoke International Oy Finland
- KunBaoDa Paper Equipments Manufacturers
- Indian Paper Market Overview
- Emerging Opportunities for Australia in India’s Paper and Paperboard Market
- Global and U.S. Paper Production
- Star Paper Market Status
- North America paper market
- Rare Turn in Paper Market
- Indian paper livens up derivatives market abroad
- Paper Making Industry 2006 Report
- China: Paper production boom destroys Asian forests
- Report on Paper Production
- Complete inspection solution for increased
productivity in paper manufacturing
- Report Summary
- Archivable papers: a report on acid-free and lignin-free paper
- Health Hazard Evaluation Report
- Paper Making-Sustainability Report
- Hoping to use Paper Long into the Future
Order the CD ROM Today