Hydroquinone  
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Information @ a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
  • Hydroquinone are one of the two primary reagents in the defensive glands of bombardier beetles, along with hydrogen peroxide, which collect in a reservoir.
  • Hydroquinone can undergo mild oxidation to convert to the compound para benzo quinone, C6H4O2, often called p-quinone or simply quinone.
  • Reduction of quinone reverses this reaction back to hydro quinone.
  • Some biochemical compounds in nature have this sort of hydroquinone or quinone section in their structures, such as Coenzyme Q, and can undergo similar redox inter conversions.
  • The hydroxyl groups of hydroquinone are quite weakly acidic.
  • Hydroquinone can lose an H+ from one of the hydroxyls to form a mono pheno late ion or lose an H+ from both to form a diphenolate ion.
  • The redox cycle of 2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone (2,5-DMBQ) is proposed as a source of reducing equivalent for the regeneration of Fe2 and H2O2 in brown rot fungal decay of wood.
  • Oxalate has also been proposed to be the physiological iron reductant.
  • The reaction of hematite with quinones and the quinone moieties of larger molecules may be an important factor in limiting the rate of reductive dissolution, especially by iron-reducing bacteria.
  • Hydroquinone-moieties were used as the redox centers.
  • They were incorporated into humic structures using formaldehyde condensation at different monomer-to-humic ratios to obtain materials of different reducing properties.
  • Hydroquinone has a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent which is soluble in water.
  • It is a major component in most photographic developers where, with the compound Metol, it reduces silver halides to elemental silver.
  • The di sodium diphenolate salt of hydroquinone is used as an alternating comonomer unit in the production of the polymer Peek.
  • As a polymerization inhibitor, hydroquinone prevents polymerization of acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, etc.
  • It is also used as a raw material of herbicides, rubber antioxidants and dye stuffs.
  • Hydroquinone is used as a topical application in skin whitening to reduce the color of skin as it does not have the same predisposition to cause dermatitis as Metol does.
Introduction
  • Hydroquinone
  • What is hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone

Process

  • Eastman Hydroquinone & Hydroquinone Derivatives
  • Electron Transfer Process Between Hydroquinone & Iron Oxides
  • Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopic investigations of hydroquinone isomers
  • Direct Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of Hydroquinone and Catechol at a Poly(glutamic acid) Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
  • Hydroquinone
  • Spectrophotometric Determination of Hydroquinone and Phenidone in First Developers

Applications

  • Catalytic hydroxylation of phenol over Cu-ZSM-5
  • The Use of Hydroquinone
  • A new model for vitamin K-dependent carboxylation The catalytic base that deprotonates vitamin K hydroquinone is not Cys but an activated amine
  • Mechanism of color Reversion in Mechanical Pulps
  • Hydroquinone

MSDS

  • Quinol
  • Hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone  Laboratory Grade, Crystal
  • Hydroquinone
  • Safety data for hydroquinone

Regulations

  • Hydroquinone
  • Maximum Exposure Limit For Hydroquinone
  • Regulations Governing the sale of cosmetics Containing Hydroquinone, Mercury& lead.
  • Hydroquinone Health, Safety, Environmental Information
  • Risk Management For Hydroquinone
  • Cosmetic Products Safety Regulations

Patent

  • Chlorination Of Hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone Derivative & Pharmaceutical use Thereof
  • Linear Hydroquinone Phenoxy Polymers & Process
  • Process For the Purification of Monotertiarybutyl Hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone Process
  • Uses of Hydroquinone Substituted Polyunsaturated fatty acid as antioxidants

Technology

  • The benzene metabolite hydroquinone enhances G2-chromosomal radio sensitivity by inducing a less-efficient G2-M-checkpoint in irradiated lymphocytes
  • Electrocatalytic Response of Hydroquinone and Catechol at Polyglycine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
  • Effect of pH and Oxalate on Hydroquinone-Derived Hydroxyl Radical Formation during Brown Rot Wood Degradation
  • Hydroquinone Redox System in the Photo Yellowing of Mechanical Pulps
  • Purification and Characterization of a Tetrachloro-p- Hydroquinone Reductive Dehalogenase
  • Reaction of hydroquinone with hematite I. Study of adsorption by electro chemical-scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Reduction of actinides in higher oxidation states by hydroquinone-enriched humic derivatives

Product

  • Hydroquinone USP 4% Cream Skin Bleaching Cream
  • Remergent Hydroquinone
  • Revenir Hydroquinone
  • Dermelect Cosmeceuticals Introduces Lightening and Brightening Products That Are Safe and Effective
  • Skin-bleaching products and other cosmetics from ethnic shops / hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin, preservatives and declaration
  • Hydroquinone-free skin

Hazards

  • Hydroquinone report
  • Hazard Summary
  • Hydroquinone and its analogues in dermatology a potential health risk
  • Chronic Hydroquinone Poisoning of the Skin from Skin-Lightening Cosmetics

Report

  • FDA Proposes Hydroquinone Ban
  • European Pharma Grade
  • Member giving kicks off Furthering Excellence in Dermatology Endowment

Consultants

  • Consultant From Egypt
  • Consultant From Pittsburgh
  • Consultant From US
  • Consultant From USA
  • Hydroquinone Expert

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