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  • A protease is any enzyme that conducts proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in the polypeptide chain. Proteases occur naturally in all organisms and constitute 1-5% of the gene content. These enzymes are involved in a multitude of physiological reactions from simple digestion of food proteins to highly regulated cascades.
  • There are over 500 human proteases (3), accounting for 2% of all human genes (DNA sequences that code for amino acids), and similar numbers of proteases occur in every mammal (vampire bat, right), plant, insect, marine organism and in every infectious organism that causes disease.
  • The activity can be a destructive change abolishing a protein's function or digesting it to its principal components; it can be an activation of a function or it can be a signal in a signalling pathway. Proteases are also a type of exotoxin, which is a virulence factor in bacteria pathogenesis. Bacteria exotoxic proteases destroy extracellular structures.
  • The function of peptidases is inhibited by protease inhibitor enzymes. Examples of protease inhibitors are the class of serpins, incorporating alpha 1-antitrypsin. Other serpins are complement 1-inhibitor, antithrombin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (coagulation, fibrinolysis) and the recently discovered neuroserpin.
  • Natural protease inhibitors include the family of lipocalin proteins, which play a role in cell regulation and differentiation. Lipophilic ligands, attached to lipocalin proteins, have been found to possess tumor protease inhibiting properties. The natural protease inhibitors are not to be confused with the protease inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy.
  • Proteases, being themselves proteins, are known to be cleaved by other protease molecules, sometimes of the same variety. This may be an important method of regulation of peptidase activity. Protease is able to hydrolyze almost all proteins as long as they are not components of living cells. Normal living cells are protected against lysis by the inhibitor mechanism.
  • Protease has an ability to digest unwanted debris in the blood including certain bacteria and viruses. Therefore, protease deficient people are immune compromised, making them susceptible to bacterial, viral and yeast infections and a general decrease in immunity.
  • In medicine, proteases represent important targets for medical intervention because of their essential regulatory roles in human physiology. With regard to such regulatory proteases, it is now known that single amino acid mutations in at least 50 human proteases result in hereditary/genetic diseases.
  • Proteases regulate many biological pathways in humans and are components of several bacterial toxins.Protease activity is critical to the action of several two part bacterial endotoxins including Tetanus toxin, Botulinum toxin, and Anthrax lethal toxin. These toxins use a cellular receptor binding protein to deliver a zinc dependent metalloprotease into the cell, where it cleaves key host proteins to exert toxic effects on the host organism.
  • Proteases regulate a variety of normal biological and disease processes. They have proven to be valuable drug targets, and there are already a number of highly successful drugs on the market that modulate protease activity, such as HIV protease and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Serine proteases, the largest class of human proteases, are attracting increasing interest for their emerging roles in several types of solid tumor cancers, which account for over 1.1 million new cases of cancer each year in the United States alone.
 General Information
  • Protease
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • International Protease Network
  • HIV-1 Protease
  • Importance of Proteases

Production and Processing

  • Alkaline Protease Enzyme Manufacturing Process
  • Production of Alkaline Protease
  • Production of Protease in Solid state Cultivation
  • Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells
  • Protease Production by  Aspergillus terreus strain
  • Production of alkaline protease by a genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae
  • Production of Protease from Burkholderia cepacia
  • Protease Production during Growth and Cultures

Functions and Properties

  • Lon protease functions as a negative regulator of type III protein
  • Aspartic Protease Functions in Arabidopsis
  • Characterization of a neutral serine protease
  • Fluorigenic Substrates for the Protease Activities of Botulinum Neurotoxins
  • Analysis of Unfolding and Refolding of HIV-1 Protease
  • Properties of an Extracellular Protease

Company Profiles

  • Advanced Enzymes Technologies Limited
  • Americos Industries Inc.
  • Catalyst Biosciences
  • Specialty Enzymes and Biochemicals  
  • Nutricepts
  • Nutritech
  • Novozymes
  • Amano Enzyme Inc.
  • Maps

Consultants

  • Gregory R. Cook
  • Thomas Spector
  • David S. Goodsell
  • Alan F. Barker
  • Elisa Sofia
  • Judith Ann Erlen
  • Robert Thomas Sauer
  • Ting-Jen Rachel Cheng
  • Garland R. Marshall
  • Dr. Sheila Nathan
  • Trevor N. Hawkins

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Alcalase
  • FOCUS-Protease
  • Idaho Data Sheet
  • VYSIS Paraffin
  • QIAGEN Protease
  • Daily Protein Remover Liquid

Patent 

  • Protease Enzyme : The 'Perfect' Pesticide
  • Method for Preparing Leather Using Protease
  • Production of Alkaline Protease
  • Process and Use of Protease
  • Extracellular Serine Protease
  • Sulfur compounds as inhibitors of hepatitis c virus ns3 serine protease

Products

  • Virastop
  • Protease Formula
  • QuantiCleave Protease
  • Biosun Products
  • Protease Inhibitor Cocktail Product
  • HitHunter Caspase
  • Protease Products
  • AcTEV  Protease
  • HRV 3C Protease
  • EnzChek Ultra Protease
  • Factor Xa Protease
Technology and Technique
  • Protease-based Cancer Screening Using Nanoliter Samples
  • StereoGraphics' Stereo3D Technology in HIV Protease
  • Characterization of a Isolated Pseudomonas Mutant for Protease Production
  • SUMO Gene Fusion Technology
  • Cloning and Sequencing of an Alkaline Protease
  • Protease Production from Aspergillus in Single Bioreactor Through EVOP Technique

Applications

  • Applications of proteases in the food industry
  • Protease Inhibitors Blocking HIV Virus
  • Application of Protease Inhibitors
  • Protease-catalyzed peptide bond formation
  • Potential application of protease
  • Potential for overcoming HIV
  • Protease Application for Lethal Factor and Factor Xa
  • Baking with Enzymes

Manufacturers, Suppliers And Buyers

  • Manufacturers of Protease
  • Alfa Chem Suppliers
  • List of Protease Exporters
  • Indian Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Selling Leads of Protease
  • Protease Suppliers
  • Trade Leads of Protease
  • Buyer of Neutral Protease

Market 

  • Protease Market with New and Improved
    Amprenavir
  • Lexiva Market Review
  • Collaboration To Develop Therapeutic Antibodies Against Cancer
  • Elucidation of crystal form diversity of the HIV protease
  • Protease inhibitor therapeutics for respiratory disease
  • Market Potential of Protein Concentrate as a Functional Ingredient in- Surimi Seafoods

Report

  • Arabidopsis aspartic protease functions
    as an anti-cell-death component
  • Report for the ARC on the Inception of the Autralian Protease Network
  • Natural Disruption of the Mouse Mast Cell Protease 7 Gene in the C57BL/6 Mouse
  • Efficacies of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors
  • Tryptophan rotamers that report the conformational dynamics of proteins
  • Trp42 Rotamers Rreport
  • Protease Reagents
  • Vertex Pharmaceuticals Report
  • Drug Marketing and Pricing

Project 

  • HCMV Protease Project
  • Comparison of the neurotoxic potential of variants of tissue-type plasminogen activator
  • Complementary pathways of peptide degradation downstream of proteasome
  • Biochemical Pharmacology of the HIV protease inhibitors
  • MMV Project
  • Detection of Noroviruses in shellfish
  • Identification of Inhibitors and Modulators of Beta- and Gamma-Secretase

Guidelines

  • General Guidelines of Protease
  • Characteristics of Protease Inhibitors
  • Guidelines for Systemic Healing
  • Guidelines for Treating HIV Disease
  • Guide to the Safe Handling of Enzyme Preparations
  • Protease Useful Links

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