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Contents on the CD Rom

  • An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant, but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids.
  • Types of Alkoloids are Terpenoid Alkaloids, Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids, Tropane Alkaloids and Nicotine, Purine Alkaloids. Alkaloids are subclassified on the basis of the chemical type of their nitrogen containing ring. Alkaloids are formed as metabolic by-products. However, their characteristic bitter taste and accompanying toxicity generally help to repel insects and herbivores. Complicated ecological interrelationships have developed between several insects and alkaloids. For example, the consumption of specific pyrrolizidine alkaloids is necessary for some danoid butterflies to synthsize their pheromones.
  • Alkaloids are very common plant metabolites and are grouped according to typical structural characteristics, resulting in large families of
    molecules as for example tropane alkaloids and PAs. PAs, formerly also called Senecio alkaloids, are widely distributed among plant species, and it is assumed that more than 6000 plant species belonging to the families of Boraginaceae, Compositae (Asteraceae) and Leguminosae (Fabaceae) contain PAs at different levels and in different patterns.
  • The free bases of alkaloids are compounds having basic properties: their aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic solutions are alkaline to litmus. The degree of basicity is expressed by the pKb and depends on the chemical nature of the alkaloid. The free bases are formed by treating the salt with one of various alkalizing agents such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, NH3, or lower amines, depending on the pKa of an ammonium salt. Generally, the pH must be adjusted at least one pH unit above the pKa of a protonated form.
  • Morphine, discovered in 1817, is the principal alkaloid of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), a plant species that has been cultivated all over the world for more than 2,000 years. Morphine is obtained from opium, the dried latex of the unripe capsules, where it is found largely
    as the salt of meconic acid. Morphine has also been isolated as a minor alkaloid from the closely related species Papaver setigerum and Papaver decaisnei.
  • The alkaloid extracts from Lupinus spp., obtained by conventional methods (maceration/sonication- solid phase extraction; maceration/ sonication - liquid-liquid extraction) and SFE (supercritical fluid extraction) using CO2 and modified CO2 (CO2/MeOH, CO2/EtOH, CO2/iPrOH and CO2/H2O) were analysed by HRGC-FID (high resolution gas chromatography - flame ionization detector) and HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry).
  • The pure alkaloids are mostly crystalline solids; some are gums or amorphous solids. Some are only slightly soluble in water, but all dissolve when neutralized with acid. They occur in the plants partly as N-oxides, which are water soluble. The alkaloids are fairly stable, but are subject to hydrolysis in alkaline solution and to enzymatic decomposition. The latter occurs in some plant species during wilting and drying. The stability of the alkaloids when the plants are cooked is not known.
  • A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent.
  • Alkaloids are mainly used in and as Pharmaceuticals, Stimulants, Narcotics, Poisons.
  • Plants containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids are likely to grow as weeds among staple food crops and pastures, especially following drought, and consumption of such crops can cause large scale outbreaks of toxic disease in both man and farm animals. Little is known about the effects on wildlife but, in one report, the death of deer was ascribed to their grazing on toxic plants.
  • The total pharmaceutical market in the EU amounted to € 144 billion in 2005, of which € 23.4 was non-prescription. Some 42% of the sales of the top 25 selling drugs worldwide are either based on natural ingredients, or derived from natural ingredients.
  • The value of EU imports of medicinal plants stabilised at € 375 million, while the value of EU imports of medicinal and vegetable saps & extracts (€ 101 million), and vegetable alkaloids (€ 521 million) decreased. EU import prices for vegetable alkaloids, vegetable saps
    and extracts and plant material have been decreasing; EU prices for natural ingredients for pharmaceuticals are now among the world´s lowest.
    Tasmanian Alkaloids exports 95% of its production so a global view is essential. The big markets in North America and Europe depend on Tasmania for regular reliable supplies 
  • The leading developing country suppliers of medicinal & aromatic plants to the EU were China, India, Nigeria, Kenya, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Uzbekistan and South Africa. About 75% of EU imports from developing countries of medicinal and vegetable saps and extracts originated in China and Madagascar. 
General Information
  • Alkaloid Information
  • Alkaloids Definitions
  • Two Faces of Alkaloids
  • Naming Alkaloids
  • The Ergot Alkaloids
  • True Alkaloids
  • The Tropane Alkaloids
  • Nuclei of Several Different Types of Alkaloids
  • Molecular Models of Alkaloids
  • Structures of Alkaloids

Extraction Process

  • Introduction to Alkaloid Extraction
  • General Method of Isolation
  • Alkaloids derived from Ornithine
  • Canthin 6 One Alkaloids from Aerva lanata Juss
  • Extraction of purine alkaloids from mate Using Supercritical CO(2)
  • Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Analysis of Lupinus spp. Alkaloids
  • Preparation of Indole Alkaloids Via 1,4 Dihydropyridine Stage or Cyano-masked Iminium Intermediates

Properties and Functions

  • Analysis of Alkaloids on BP5
  • Alkaloid Biosynthesis -The Basis for Metabolic Engineering of Medicinal Plants 
  • Effects of Delphinium Alkaloids on Neuromuscular Transmission
  • In vitro properties of Antimicrobial Bromotyrosine alkaloids 
  • Synthesis of Lennoxamine: The Isoindolobenzazepine Alkaloids
  • Properties of Opiate Alkaloids 
  • Synthesis of Poison-Frog Alkaloids and Their Pharmacological Effects
  • Ring-closing metathesis: A facile construct for alkaloid synthesis 
  • Synthesis of the Alkaloid Natural Products
  • Alkaloid Total Synthesis
  • Antinociceptive Activity of the Natural Piperidine Alkaloid Hydrochlorides from Syphocampylus verticellatus 


  • Production of caffeine alkaloid by Claviceps sorghi 
  • Effect of different culture medium components on production of alkaloid in callus tissues of Cereus peruvianus 
  • Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a common tall fescue Genotype
  • Increasing Alkaloid Production from Catharanthus roseus Suspensions through Methyl Jasmonate Elicitation
  • Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids
  • Production Process of Lappaconitine Hydrobromide
  • Somatic embryogenesis, rhizogenesis, and morphinan alkaloids production in two species of opium poppy 

Company Profiles

  • ALPS Pharmaceutical Ind Co., Ltd
  • Alkaloids of Australia Pty Ltd
  • Alkaloids Corporation 
  • Eli Lilly and Company (NZ) Limited
  • Merck Inc
  • Tasmanian Alkaloids Pty Ltd
  • Indo-World Trading Corporation  


  • George A.Ricaurte
  • Robert ANTON
  • Intota
  • Jan A.Glinski, Ph.D.
  • Martin G. Banwell  FAA, FRACI, Hon.FRSNZ
  • Qni Ph.D
  • Asia Pacific Consultants Pty Ltd
  • EAS Consulting Group
  • Larry E. Overman
  • NeoTropico Consultants

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Marquis Reagent for Opium Alkaloids
  • Mayer's Reagent for Narcotic Alkaloids
  • Opium Alkaloids
  • Strychnine Alkaloid
  • Tincture of opium
  • MSDS for Alkaloids Groups


  • Manufacturing process of Beta acylenamine
  • Pilocarpin production process 
  • Process for the extraction and purification of alkaloids
  • Production of high purity alkaloids 
  • Beverage with high levels of alkaloid
  • Monomeric Naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids and synthesis methods thereof
  • Biological applications of alkaloids derived from the tunicate Eudistoma sp


  • Cephalotaxus Alkaloids Product List
  • DreniLean ECA Stack 70tb
  • Pure Ephedrine Alkaloids Extract Tablets
  • Lipodrene-SR
  • Methergine
  • Ephedrine Alkaloid Products List
  • Ephedrine Alkaloid tablet


  • Alkaloids Suppliers
  • Exporters of Alkaloids
  • Alkaloids Selling Leads
  • Manufacturers of Alkaloids
  • Suppliers of Alkaloids
  • Plant cell biotechnology for the production of secondary metabolites
  • New Extraction Technique for Alkaloids
  • Solid Substrate Mediated Changes in Ergot Alkaloid Spectra in Solid State Fermentation System
  • Metabolic engineering of caffeine production
  • Hydroponics as a Model Technology fro Producing Plant Root Secondary Metabolites
  • Quantitation of Major Tobacco Alkaloids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • Quantitative Analysis of Ephedra Alkaloids in Commercial Products by High Temperature LC-TOFM 
  • Ephedrine-Type Alkaloid Content of Nutritional Supplements Containing Ephedra sinica As Determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography


  • Application of Nicotine and Cytisine in Nicotine Addiction Treatment
  • Photoinduced electron transfer in organic synthesis: Application to alkaloids 
  • Uses of Alkaloids
  • Polyhydroxylated Alkaloids as Carbohydrate Mimics
  • Polymer-Supported Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Ammonium Salts as Recoverable Phase
  • lndole alkaloids in human medicine
  • Alkaloids and its Uses
  • Uses of Matrine and oxymatrine
  • Alkaloids Applications
  • Ephedra and Ephedrine Alkaloids for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance


  • The world is your software market
  • Record Dry but Poppy Still Produce
  • Not if, but when - a US ban on ephedra
  • Ephedrine alkaloid supplements seized, says FDA
  • Ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements illegal to market in US
  • Feds Seize Supplements Containing Ephedra
  • FDA seizes more ephedra supplements
  • US government to expand ephedra research
  • Ephedra Back on the market


  • Alkaloids
  • Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a Request From the European Commission Related to Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
  • Recent Investigations on Ergot Alkaloids
  • The Ergot Alkaloids on Ergotamine and Ergoclavine
  • The Medicinal Plants Sector in India
  • Chemical profiling of Nothapodytes nimmoniana populations in the Western Ghats, India for anti-cancer compound, camptothecin
  • Risk Assessment and Risk Management Plan
  • Tasmanian Alkaloids
  • Ephedrine-Type Alkaloid- Containing Dietary Supplements and Substance Dependence 


  • Biochemistry and Biochemical Ecology of Purine Alkaloids
  • Evaluation of the alkaloid production of oilseed poppy containing a modified gene involved in the pathway of alkaloid production
  • Effects of Glyphosphate on Alkaloid Production in Erthroxylum
  • Nanotechnology and Organic Synthesis
  • The interaction of rynia alkaloids with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel
  • Plant sources of benzophenanthridine alkaloids and effects of these alkaloid on normal and cancer cells
  • Alkaloid-AD

Health Effects and  Toxicity 

  • Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Indicine N-Oxide, in Humans
  • Energetics of Vinca Alkaloid Interactions With Tubulin Isotypes: Implications for Drug Efficacy and Toxicity
  • Ephedra Dangers
  • Acute Myocardial Infarction Induced by Ephedrine Alkaloids

Safety and Guidelines

  • Safety Evaluation of Foods Derived by Modern Biotechnology
  • Dietary Supplements: Ephedrine Alkaloids
  • Safety Concerns Regarding Ephedrine-Type Alkaloid-Containing Dietary Supplements
  • Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines
  • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Health and Safety Guide


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