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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Endosulfan is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide and acaricide of the cyclodiene subgroup which acts as a poison to a wide variety of insects and mites on contact. Although it may also be used as a wood preservative, it is used primarily on a wide variety of food crops including tea, coffee, fruits, and vegetables, as well as on rice, cereals, maize, sorghum, or other grains.
  • Endosulfan, when sprayed, consists of the a and b isomers but these are metabolised to the sulfate on pasture or when ingested. The primary residue detected in livestock is therefore endosulfan sulphate.
  • Adding endosulfan to soil appears to reduce the rate of degradation of other organochlorine pesticides already present in the soil, either because endosulfan reduces the populations of micro-organisms, or because of reduction of the activity of micro-organisms responsible for degradation of the other organochlorines.
  • Endosulfan is a powerful poison linked to accidental deaths of farmers and consumers of sprayed crops in North and South America, Africa and Asia. In India, long-term exposure to the chemical has been linked to hundreds of cases of serious illnesses including cancers, birth defects and neurological and reproductive disorders. Endosulfan kills indiscriminately and non-pest species, including birds and fish, have died following exposure - mass deaths of fish poisoned by endosulfan have been reported from five continents. The chemical persists in the environment and accumulates in the food chain. It was recorded at 100 times the permitted level in cow milk and meat in India.
  • The EJF report summarises the health and environmental hazards posed by this chemical and calls for action from to governments, inter-governmental agencies and the agrochemical industry. Endosulfan is banned or severely restricted in over 30 countries and safe application cannot be guaranteed under conditions of use in the developing countries where the chemical is still widely used. The time has come for responsible authorities to take action against this chemical in order to safeguard human health and environmental integrity.
  • A big drawback with endosulfan is that the breakdown product, endosulfan sulphate, is more persistent than the parent compound, accounting for 90% of the residue in 11 weeks.
  • The Central Insecticides Bureau (CIB) is the Central Govt. Agency, which regulates pesticide use in India. They have periodical reviews of use of pesticides and is the agency for registering its manufacture, sale and use.
  • The EPA recommends not more than 74 ppb (part per billion) in lakes, streams, or rivers, and not more than 0.1 2 ppm (parts per million) on surfaces of agricultural products (except dried tea, <24 ppm). Consumers are advised to wash agricultural products before their consumption.
General
  • Endosulfan-Chemical Database
  • Endosulfan-Summary
  • Endosulfan
  • Endosulfan-Pesticide Information Profiles
  • Endosulfan-Data Sheet
  • Endosulfan-chemistry
  • Chemical and Physical Information
  • Endosulfan - Data

FAQ

  • Endosulfan-alpha
  • Endosulfan-beta
  • Endosulfan-Fact Sheet
  • Endosulfan-FAQ
  • Endosulfan-Human Health Statement
  • Fact sheet

Guidelines

  • Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Endosulfan
  • Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines
  • Guidelines for Drain Disposal of
    Chemicals
  • The reconsiderations of active constituent Endosulfan
  • Guidelines for the Assessments of Dredge material for Disposal
  • Endosulfan Health and Safety Guide

Risk Assessment

  • End of the Road for Endosulfan
  • Endosulfan
  • Suppression of auxin stimulated growth of barley coleoptile sections by endosulfan
  • Overview of  Endosulfan Risk Assessment
  • HED Risk Assessment for the Endosulfan Reregistration Eligibility Decision
  • EFED Risk Assessment for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision on Endosulfan
  • Evaluation of Possible Endocrine Effects in Mammalian Species.
  • Hazard
  • Health Effects
  • Potential for Human Exposure
  • The Problem of Endosulfan

Analysis

  • Analytical Methods
  • Biodegradation of cyclodiene insecticide endosulfan by Mucor thermohyalospora
  • Detection and extraction of endosulfan by metal nanoparticles
  • Technical Endosulfan
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods
  • Quantitative Usage Analysis for Endosulfan
  • Endosulfan and its metabolites in fertile women, placenta, cord blood, and human milk
  • Endosulfan testing and monitoring program

Regulations

  • Pesticides Regulations
  • Regulatory News
  • Regulations and Advisories
  • Endosulfan - Regulation in India

  • Regulatory Resources
  • Regulatory Information
  • Endosulfan-Re-Evaluation Note

Production Process and Technology

  • Hindustan Insecticide Limited - Endosulfan
  • Pesticides Manufacturing
  • Use of CTC in Endosulfan production
  • Production
  • Endosulfan Exposure Disrupts
  • Metabolic Pathways
  • Endosulfan microcapsule dispersion - Patent
  • Aqueous Suspension Concentrates on Endosulfan - Patent
  • Endosulfan -  TechOffers
  • Development of Molecular Probes

Standards

  • Analytical Standards
  • Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan
  • Environmental Standards
  • Pesticide Standards
  • Provisional Environmental Quality Standards
  • Standard - endosulfan
  • Montana Numeric Water Quality Standards
Products
  • Endosulfan (CASRN 115-29-7)
  • Alpha-Endosulfan
  • Endosulfan 400E
  • Thiodan 2C-MSDS
  • Thiodan Spray

Market

  • Pesticides in developing countries
  • The pesticide industry in India
  • The Endosulfan Program
  • Endosulfan in India 
  • Pesticide Residues
  • Philippine Case Study

Reports

  • Dubey panel's clean chit to endosulfan challenged
  • Endosulfan remains a riddle shrouded in controversy
  • Endosulfan Conspiracy
  • Review of Endosulfan Incident Reports
  • Children of endosulfan
  • Environmental Epidemiological study
  • The living dead
  • The Pesticides Endosulfan, Toxaphene, and Dieldrin
  • Endosulfan victims

Projects

  • AMAP Project Directory Registration Form
  • Global Gridded gamma-HCH and Endosulfan Emission Inventories
  • Bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils and its effect on soil functionality
  • Toxicological evaluation of endosulfan in fish feed
  • Proposal for Hed Master's Project

Company Profile

  • Parijat
  • Hindustan Insecticides Limited
  • Agro-care Chemical Industry Group
  • Excel Industries Ltd
  • FMC Corporation
  • Makhteshim Chemical Works

Suppliers

  • Pesticides, Insecticides & Allied Products Suppliers
  • Endosulfan Suppliers
  • Chinese Suppliers
  • Endosulfan Manufacturers
  • Chinese Manufacturers
  • Global Exporters & Manufacturers
  • Suppliers
  • Indian Trade Directory
  • Manufacturers
  • Endosulfan - Selling Leads

Buyers

  • Insecticide Buyers
  • Cyclodiene Buyers
  • Endosulfan Buyers
  • Buying Leads - Insecticides
  • Insecticide-Buy Offers

Consultants

  • Endosulfan Task Force
  • PR Watch
  • Experts
  • Dr. Christopher Pick
  • Brendan Patrick Doyle

Raw Material and Equipment Suppliers

  • Thionyl Chloride Suppliers
  • Thionyl chloride MSDS
  • Centrifuges Suppliers
  • Processing Plants
  • Reactors
  • Distillation Equipment
  • Flaker machines
  • Butenediol Suppliers
  • Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Suppliers

Uses

  • Biologic and Economic Assessment
  • Crop Profile
  • Endosulfan - Uses
  • Endosulfan Summary
  • Intensive chemical use on cotton crops
  • Changes to Endosulfan Use Requirements

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