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  • Echinacea is a genus consisting of nine species of flowering plants in the Family Asteraceae, all native to eastern North America, and often known as the purple coneflower. The genus name is from the Greek echino, meaning "spiny", due to the spiny central disk. They are herbaceous, drought-tolerant perennial plants growing to 1 or 2 m in height. 
  • The leaves are lanceolate to elliptic, 10-20 cm long and 1.5-10 cm broad. Like all Asteraceae, the flowers are a composite inflorescence, with purple (rarely yellow or white) florets arranged in a prominent, somewhat cone-shaped head; "cone-shaped" because the petals of the outer ray florets tend to point downward once the flower head opens, thus forming a cone. Studies have both proved and disproved the effectiveness of Echinacea in combating common diseases such as the cold.
  • Echinacea is an herb native to prairie habitats in the United States. Some species of Echinacea, notably P. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida, are grown as ornamental plants in gardens.They tolerate a wide variety of conditions, maintain attractive foliage throughout the season, and multiply rapidly. 
  • Plants are generally started from seed, which is often hard to germinate, with 50% or less in some cases. It is generally recommended that seed undergo a 30-90 day stratification period in peat or fine sand at 5°C, followed by seeding in a room at 40°C for germination. A soil mix of 1:1:1, peat, sand and soil by volume is suggested. Literature also suggests that surface or very shallow seeding gives better results as light has some influence on germination. Another procedure for greenhouse seeding is to give the seed 30 day stratification at 0°C then a 24 hour aerated water soak, followed by sowing on the surface of the medium in a room at 40°C.
  • There are about 257,000 seeds/kg (117,000 seeds/lb) in E. purpurea and up to 319,000 seeds/kg (145,000 seeds/lb) in E. pallida var. angustifolia. One-half kg (one lb.) of seed should be enough to provide transplants for an acre. E. pallida var. angustifolia seed needs to be air cleaned well, excluding nonviable seed, to increase the germination rate. Seed will keep in sealed containers in a freezer or in a cool dry room for several years.
  • Echinacea is not weed tolerant, thus weeding is an important factor. There are no herbicides registered for field grown echinacea in Canada, only ornamental and none are applied for, as the industry prefers to grow organically. One of the best ways to reduce weed problems in echinacea plantings is to prepare the land at least one year in advance.Diseases such as fusarium, sclerotinia, pythium, phytophthora, and verticillium have been found on echinacea. The disease aster yellows is a problem on echinacea and is spread by leafhoppers. There is no control for leafhoppers. 
  • Several laboratory and animal studies suggest that echinacea contains active substances that enhance the activity of the immune system, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and have hormonal, antiviral, and antioxidant effects. For this reason, professional herbalists may recommend echinacea to treat urinary tract infections, vaginal yeast (candida) infections, ear infections (also known as otitis media), athlete's foot, sinusitis, hay fever (also called allergic rhinitis), as well as slow-healing wounds. 
  • A rationale for promoting farm-raised echinacea, rather than wild harvesting, has been the threat to wild plant populations from indiscriminate
    collecting on private and public lands. Professional wild harvesters have been collecting roots at an accelerating pace for sale to botanicals brokers. Landowners have also exploited the presence of wild populations on their land. Plant digging on certain western tribal lands dramatically increased after 1995. In the late 1990s several western states banned or restricted collection of wild echinacea to protect E. angustifolia populations.
  • Researchers of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich demonstrated that compounds of Echinacea, so-called alkylamides, exert their immunomodulatory effects by several mechanisms that are partly dependent and partly independent of the activation of CB2 receptors. They showed that several alkylamides of Echinacea bind to the CB2-receptor more strongly than endocannabinoids. They reduce inflammation by effects on cytokines, e.g. by the inhibition of TNF-alpha.
  • The largest market for herbal medicines using Echinacea is in Europe, where Phytomedicine counter sales were US$2.4 billion in the European community in 1990, 65% of this total in Germany. The volume of world trade in Echinacea root is not known. There is a small demand by
    Australasian processors for root (a few tonnes only). Prices paid for dried root typically range from $20 to $60/kg depending on the degree of processing. The price for leaf is in the $8-25 range.
  • Echinacea- Introduction
  • Echinacea
  • Information on Echinacea
  • Classification of Echinacea
  • Echinacea Fact Sheet
  • Herbs at a Glance- Echinacea

Growth and Cultivation

  • Culture of Echinacea
  • Growing Echinacea
  • An Overview of Growing Echinacea
  • Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Echinacea purpurea Mineral Composition 

Species Information

  • Echinacea laevigata
  • Echinacea angustifolia
  • Echinacea purpurea
  • Echinacea atrorubens
  • Echinacea pallida
  • Echinacea paradoxa
  • Echinacea sanguinea
  • Echinacea simulata
  • Echinacea tennesseensis

Properties and  Extraction 

  • The Synthesis and Natural Distribution of the Major Ketone Constituents in Echinacea pallida 
  • Diacetylenic Isobutylamides of Echinacea
  • Optimisation of Polysaccharides in Processed Echinacea purpurea
  • Content of essential oil obtained from flower heads of Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of selected components 
  • Echinacea purpurea glycerite: Key elements of the Extraction process 
  • Alkylamides from Echinacea Are a New Class of Cannabinomimetics 

Production and Management

  • Echinacea Production in Manitoba
  • Echinacea production in Saskatchewan
  • Production Practices for Echinacea Angustifolia
  • Warm Climate Production Guidelines for Echinacea 
  • Echinacea angustifolia - Field Production
  • Yellows Diseases of Echinacea, Monarda and Caraway
  • Factors Affecting Echinacea Quality
  • Diseases of Echinacea on the Canadian Prairies

Growers and Cultivars

  • AB cultivars
  • Dayton Nursery
  • Terrapin Gardens
  • AlwaysGreen Nursery
  • Cate Farm
  • The Crownsville Nursery
  • Dave's Garden
  • NorthCreek Nurseries
  • Portland Nursery
  • Prairie Nursery Inc
  • Stadler Nurseries
  • Sunny Border
  • Terra Nova Nurseries, Inc
  • The Mixed Border Nursery and Gardens
  • Twombly Nursery
  • Van Hoorn Nurseries, Inc.,


  • Wilhelmsen Consulting
  • Chiwon W. Lee
  • Timothy P. Scheett, Ph. D
  • James W. Rushing
  • Edward Maclin
  • Harold W. Keller
  • Darryl See, M.D.
  • Daniel C. Cherkin, Ph.D.
  • Susan Gail Cosmetic Surgery Consultant


  • Heated alcohol extraction of herbs
  • Process for Extracting Compounds from Plants
  • Botanical Extraction Process
  • Echinacea angustifolia extracts
  • Echinacea supplement and method of manufacture 
  • Transgenic Echinacea plants
  • Method of preparing echinacea powder 
  • Use of echinacea as a hematinic agent 
  • Polysaccharide of echinacea angustifolia 


  • Echinacea Syrup
  • Echinacea Plus
  • Echinacea Blends
  • Healthcare Products
  • EchinamideŽ Standardized Echinacea Products
  • Pure Echinacea Products
  • Ginseng Echinacea Products
  • Most Popular Echinacea Products
  • Nature's ResourceŽ Echinacea Whole Herb
  • Think Natural Products List
  • Echinacea Products List
  • Eclectic Institute, Echinacea Products
  • Echinamide Echinacea Products
  • Capsules


  • An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections 
  • Uses of Echinacea
  • Clinical Pharmacology/ Pharmacodynamics
  • Complementary Medicinal Uses
  • Health Benefits of Echinacea
  • Treatment of the Common Cold with Unrefined Echinacea
  • Echinacea - For Colds Flu and Immune System

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Powdered Echinacea Angustifolia
  • Echinacea Angustifolia Herb Powder
  • Echinacea juice extract
  • Powdered Echinacea Purpurea Extract
  • Echinacea purpurea USA
  • Echinacea Kit  Safety Data Sheet


  • Economic Issues with Echinacea
  • Farm Diversification Information
  • Economics of Echinacea
  • Botanical Ingredients: Growing Market, Growing Challenges 
  • The Conservation Status of Echinacea Species
  • Market Opportunities and Strategic Directions for Specialty Herbs and Essential Oil Crops in Montana 
  • National Market Analysis for Southwestern Herbs 
  • Echinacea Market Outlook
  • Market News - Medicinal Plants & Extracts


  • Echinacea: Herb of the Year 2002
  • Alaskan Special Forest Products Markets Report
  • Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea 
  • Echinacea - Natural Standard Monograph
  • Echinacea as a Tobacco Crop Alternative
  • Medical Cannabis News and Information
  • Echinacea - The purple coneflowers 
  • The Herbal Path- A Natural Pharmacy
  • Echinacea purpurea - Herb Information Greenpaper


  • Using Earth Derived Antibiotics to Effectively Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus 
  • Government Chemist Programme Project- Methods for Ginkgo Biloba and Echinacea in Food Supplements
  • Echinacea: Myth or Miracle
  • Conservation Project: Recovery of Echinacea laevigata
  • Diversity in Echinacea and Hypericum
  • Nutraceutical/Medicinal Industry Enhancement Project
  • Echinacea: Ecology & Evolution in Fragmented Praire Habitat
  • Medicinal herb planting projects
  • Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial.

Suppliers and Buyers

  • Worldwide Echinacea Suppliers
  • Echinacea - Selling Leads
  • Echinacea Trade Leads
  • Echinacea Manufacturers
  • Echinacea Sellers
  • Selling leads of Echinacea
  • Distributors of Echinacea 
  • Echinacea Powdered Extract Suppliers
  • Echinacea Suppliers
  • Suppliers of Echinacea Extracts
  • Foreign Exporters & Manufacturers
  • Amax NutraSource, Inc
  • Foreign Importers & Buyers
  • Echinacea Buyers List

Safety and  Hazards 

  • Safety of Echinacea in the Prevention and Treatment of Symptoms of the Common Cold
  • Hazards of Herbal Use
  • Anesthesia And Herbal Medicines - Hidden Hazards
  • Herb Echinacea- Safe for Sniffles During Pregnancy
  • Echinacea Side Effect: Gut Changes
  • Echinacea and Pregnancy
  • Efficacy and Safety of Echinacea in Treating Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children


  • Important Links on Echinacea
  • A Hands-On Training Program in Supercritical CO2 Extraction 
  • Herbal Extract Information and Guidance
  • Labelling Guidance Document
  • Echinacea- A Common Remedy

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