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Project @ a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Azotobacter is a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is used as a biofertilizer in the cultivation of most crops.  
  • Azotobacter are usually motile, oval, or spherical bacteria, form thick-walled cysts, and may produce large quantities of capsular slime. Beyond Azotobacter’s use as a model it has biotechnological applications. A couple examples are its use for alginate production and for nitrogen production in batch fermentations. Azotobacter are gram-negative bacteria.
  • Azotobacter species are Gram-negative, aerobic soil-dwelling bacteria. There are around six species in the genus, some of which are motile by means of peritrichous flagella, others are not. They are typically polymorphic, i.e. of different sizes and shapes. Their size of the cells ranges from 2-10 µm long and 1-2 µm wide.
  • There are four important species of Azotobacter viz. A.Chroococcum, A.agilis, A.paspali and A.vinelandii of which A.chroococcum is most commonly found in our soils.
  • Azotobacter is found on neutral to alkaline soils, in aquatic environments, in the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere. A.chroococcum is the most common species of Azotobacter present in the soil. 
  • In Indian soils, the population of Azotobacter is not more than 10 thousand to 1 lakh/g of soil. The Population of Azotobacter is mostly influenced by other micro-organisms present in soil. 
  • Azotobacter produces some substances which check the plant pathogens such as Alternaria, Fusarium and Helminthosporium. Hence Azotobacter acts as a biological control agent.
  • Azotobacter is multiplied on a large scale by two ways viz. Fermenter and Shaker. 
  • Azotobacter naturally fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the rhizosphere. There are different strains of Azotobacter each has varied chemical, biological and other characters.
  • Besides, nitrogen fixation, Azotobacter also produces, Thiomin, Riboflavin, Nicotin, indol acitic acid and giberalin. When Azotobacter is applied to seeds, seed germination is improved to a considerable extent, so also it controls plant diseases due to above substances produced by Azotobacter.
  • A plant needs nitrogen for its growth and Azotobacter fixes atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically. Therefore, all plants, trees, vegetables, get benefited. However, especially cereals, vegetables, fruits, trees, sugarcane, cotton, grapes, banana, etc. are known to get addition nitrogen requirements from Azotobacter. Azotobacter also increases germination of seeds. Seeds having less germinating percent if inoculated can increase germination by 20-30%.
  • The current trends indicate that there is a steady increase in the demand in the Southern states except Andhra Pradesh, Western States and Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • Basic Information
  • Microbial Biorealm - Azotobacter
  • Introduction To Azotobacter
  • Soil Microbiology
  • The Bacteria Azotobacter, Beggiatoa,and Desulfovibrio in the Surtsey soil
  • Role of nitrogen in the biosphere


  • Development And Germination Of the Azotobacter Cyst
  • Growth and Production of Azotobacter
  • Growth Of Azotobacter vinelandii on soil nutrients
  • Large scale production of Azotobacter
  • Occurrence of Azotobacter spp in some polish soils
  • Effect of growth substrate on The Respiration of Azotobacter


  • Cloning of ferredoxin I gene from Azotobacter vinelandii using synthetic oligonucleotide probes
  • Genes required for rapid expression of nitrogenase activity in Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Contamination of Azotobacter chroococcum by Gram-negative Bacterial Rods
  • Azotobacter vinelandii Nitrogenase
  • Control of Diauxic Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii on Acetate and Glucose

Species Information

  • List of Microbial Genera: Azotobacter (Bacteria)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Capsular Polysaccharide Of Azotobacter agilis
  • Growth of Azotobacter chroococcum 
  • Phospholipids of Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Regulation of Poly-P-hydroxybutyrate Metabolism in Azotobacter beijerinckii
  • Proteins of Azotobacter vinelandii Database

Company Profiles

  • Kumar  Krishi Mitra Bioproducts
  • Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited
  • HiMedia
  • Microbax
  • SOM Phytopharma (India) Limited
Project and Consultants
  • Azotobacter vinelandii genome project
  • Bioinformatics Genome Projects
  • Model Bankable Projects- Biofertilizers
  • Mitcon Consultancy
  • Prof. Dr. Dilek Sanin
  • Wilbur H. Campbell
  • Carl Bernofsky
  • Daniel Vartan DerVartanian
  • Yong-Cheol Park, Ph.D.
  • Gunindra N. Chattopadhyay
  • Randy D. Ralph, MLIS, Ph.D
  • Robert Jones
  • Production of extra-cellular polymer in Azotobacter 
  • Isolation, Sequencing, and Mutagenesis of the nifF Gene Encoding Flavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Pyridine Nucleotide Transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii
  • Detoxification of mercury and organomercurials by nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria
  • Biosynthesis of Alginiic Acid by Azotobacter vinelandii


  • Agrobased Industry
  • Green input market-spatial & temporal trends
  • Organic farming: a high-value enterprise
  • India's future lies in organic farming
  • IFFCO at a Glance
  • Reclaiming Mines: India


  • Antiammonia azotobacter and the use thereof
  • Method and Apparatus for producing organic fertilizer with the use of Nitrogen Fixing Bacillus
  • Mutant Strains of Azotobacter Vinelandii 
  • Azotobacter Beijerinckii
  • Polysaccharide Producing Process Using Protease and Azotobacter


  • Mitcon Technology
  • Bio-Technology
  • Liquid Biofertilizers
  • Technology Offer
  • Blooming Blossoms Technology
  • Promoting Bio-fertilizers in Indian Agriculture
  • Rural Technology
  • Technology Assessment, Refinement and Transfer


  • Annual Report 2001-2003
  • New Industrial Possibilities- Dharmapuri report
  • Annual Report 2005-2006
  • Biotechnology and Indian Economy
  • Microbial Biofertilizers
  • Biofertilizers in Malaysian Agriculture
  • FNCA Biofertilizer Project Report

Machinery Suppliers

  • Acmas Technocracy (Pvt) Ltd
  • Analytical Balance Suppliers
  • Autoclave Suppliers
  • Deep Freezer Supplier
  • Fermentor Supplier
  • Incubator Shaker Supplier
  • Structure Probe, Inc
  • Miscellaneous lab equipment and suppliers
  • Microscope Supplier
  • Toshibha

Suppliers And Buyer

  • Suppliers of Azotobacter
  • Suppliers List Of Azotobacter
  • Buyer of Azotobacter

Material Safety Data Sheet And Guidelines

  • Valtrex Caplets Data Sheet
  • Micotil 300 Safety Data Sheet
  • Vitormone Safety Data Sheet
  • Recombinant Safety Guidelines

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